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Research publications

# Click the "Email Paper" link and enter your email address to retrieve articles. You can also download some recent publications directly where "Download paper" links are present. Some Japanese publications are not listed here. For a full publication list, see Kou Murayama's CV.

In press

Elliot, A. J., Jury, M., & Murayama, K. (in press). Trait and perceived environmental competitiveness in achievement situations. Journal of Personality   

Murayama, K., Izuma, K., Aoki, R., & Matsumoto, K. (in press). "Your choice" motivates you in the brain: The emergence of autonomy neuroscience. In S. Kim, J. Reeve, & M. Bong (Eds.), Advances in Motivation and Achievement (Vol. 19, Recent Developments in Neuroscience Research on Human Motivation) (pp. 95-125). Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Please send an email to Kou Murayama to request a copy

Arens, A. K., Marsh, H. W., Pekrun, R., Lichtenfeld, S., Murayama, K., & vom Hofe, R. (in press). Math self-concept, grades, and achievement test scores: Long-term reciprocal effects across five waves and three achievement tracks. Journal of Educational Psychology   

Pekrun, R., Lichtenfeld, S., Marsh, H. W., Murayama, K., & Goetz, T. (in press). Achievement emotions and academic performance: Longitudinal models of reciprocal effects. Child Development   

Murayama, K., Goetz, T., Malmberg, L-E., Pekrun, R., Tanaka, A., & Martin, A. J. (in press). Within-person analysis in educational psychology: Importance and illustrations. In D. W. Putwain, & K. Smart (Eds.), British Journal of Educational Psychology Monograph Series II: Psychological Aspects of Education --- Current Trends: The role of competence beliefs in teaching and learning. Oxford: Wiley.   

Middlebrooks, C. D., Murayama, K., & Castel, A. D. (in press). Test expectancy and memory for important information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition   

Marsh, H. M., Pekrun, R., Parker, P. D., Murayama, K., Guo, J., Dicke, T., & Lichtenfeld, S. (in press). Long-term positive effects of repeating a year in school: Six-year longitudinal study of self-beliefs, anxiety, social relations, school grades, and test scores. Journal of Educational Psychology   

Elliot, A. J. Aldhobaiban, N.,Murayama, K., Kobeisy, A., Gocłowska, M. A., & Khyat, A. (in press). Impression management and achievement motivation: Investigating substantive links. International Journal of Psychology   

Gocłowska, M. A., Aldhobaiban, N., Elliot, A. J., Murayama, K., Kobeisy, A., & Abdelaziz, A. (in press). Temperament and self-based correlates of cooperative, competitive and individualistic learning preferences. International Journal of Psychology   


Przybylski, A., Weinstein, N., & Murayama, K. (2017). Internet gaming disorder: Investigating the clinical relevance of a new phenomenon. American Journal of Psychiatry, 174, 230-236.   

Rhodes, M. G., Witherby, A. E., Castel, A. D., & Murayama, K. (2017). Explaining the forgetting bias effect on value judgments: The influence of memory for a past test. Memory & Cognition, 45, 362-374.   

Warwick, H., Reardon, T., Cooper, P., Murayama, K., Reynolds, S., Wilson, C., & Creswell, C. (2017). Complete recovery from anxiety disorders following cognitive behavior therapy in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 52, 77-91.   

Hargis, M. B., Yue, C. L., Kerr, T., Ikeda, K., Murayama, K., & A. D. Castel (2017). Metacognition and proofreading: The roles of aging, motivation, and interest. Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition, 24, 216-226.   


Murayama, K., Kitagami, S., Tanaka, A., & Raw, J. A. (2016). People's naiveté about how extrinsic rewards influence intrinsic motivation. Motivation Science, 2, 138-142.   

Ikeda, K., Yue, C. L., Murayama, K., & Castel, A. (2016). Achievement goals affect metacognitive judgments. Motivation Science, 2, 199-219.   

Sugiura, A., Aoki, R, Murayama, K., Yomogida, Y., Haji, T., Saito, A., Hasegawa, T., & Matsumoto, K. (2016). Regional gray matter volume in the posterior precuneus is associated with general self-efficacy. NeuroReport, 27, 1350-1353.   

Elliot, A. J., Aldhobaiban, N., Kobeisy, A., Murayama, K., Gocłowska, M. ,A., & Lichtenfeld, S. (2016). Linking social interdependence preferences to achievement goal adoption. Learning and Individual Differences, 50, 291-295.   

Murayama, K., Pekrun, R., Suzuki, M., Marsh, H. W., & Lichtenfeld, S. (2016). Don't aim too high for your kids: Parental over-aspiration undermines students' learning in mathematics. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 111(5), 766-779.   

Marsh, H. W., Pekrun, R., Lichtenfeld, S., Guo, J., Arens, A. K., & Murayama, K. (2016). Breaking the double-edged sword of effort/trying hard: Developmental equilibrium and longitudinal relations among effort, achievement, and academic self-concept. Developmental Psychology, 52(8), 1273-1290.   

Murayama, K., Blake, A., Kerr, T., & Castel, A. D (2016). When enough is not enough: Information overload and metacognitive decisions to stop studying information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 42(6), 914-924.   

Middlebrooks, C. D., Murayama, K., & Castel, A. D. (2016). The value in rushing: Memory and selectivity when short on time. Acta Psychologica, 170, 1-19.   

Castel, A. D., Friedman, M. C., McGillivray, S., Flores, C. C., Murayama, K., Kerr, T. & Drolet, A. (2016). I owe you: Age-related similarities and differences in associated memory for gains and losses. Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition, 23(5), 549-565.   

Kuhbandner, C., Aslan, A., Emmerdinger K., & Murayama K. (2016). Providing extrinsic reward for test performance undermines long-term memory acquisition. Frontiers in Psychology, 7(79), 1-12. Download paper

Ueno, T., Fastrich, G. & Murayama, K.  (2016). Meta-analysis to integrate effect sizes within a paper: Possible misuse and Type-1 error inflation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 145(5), 643-654.   

Yamagata, B., Murayama, K., Black, J. M., Hancock, R., Mimura, M., Yang, T. T., Reiss, A. L., & Hoeft, F. (2016). Female-specific intergenerational transmission patterns of the human corticolimbic circuitry. Journal of Neuroscience, 36(4), 1254-1260.   

Middlebrooks, C. D., McGillivray, S., Murayama, K., & Castel, A. D. (2016). Memory for allergies and health foods: How younger and older adults strategically remember critical health information. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 73(3), 389-99.   

Goetz, T., Sticca, F., Pekrun, R., Murayama, K. & Elliot, A. J. (2016). Intraindividual relations between achievement oals and discrete achievement emotions: An experience sampling approach. Learning and Instruction, 41, 115-125.   


McGillivray, S., Murayama, K., & Castel, A. D. (2015). Thirst for knowledge: The effects of curiosity and interest on memory in younger and older adults. Psychology and Aging, 30(4), 835-841.   

Weidman, A. C., Augustine, A. A, Murayama, K., & Elliot, A. J. (2015). Internalizing symptomatology and academic achievement: Bi-directional prospective relations in adolescence. Journal of Research in Personality, 58, 106-114.   

Murayama, K., Matsumoto, M., Izuma, K., Sugiura, A., Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L., & Matsumoto, K. (2015). How self-determined choice facilitates performance: A key role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 25(5), 1241-1251.   

Elliot, A. J., Murayama, K., Kobeisy, A., & Lichtenfeld, S. (2015). Potential-based achievement goals. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 192-206. Download the scale reported in the paper   

Izuma, K., Akula, S., Murayama, K., Wu, D-A., Iacoboni, M., Adolphs, R. (2015). A causal role for posterior medial prefrontal cortex in choice-induced preference change. Journal of Neuroscience, 35, 3598-3606.   

Ikeda, K., Castel, A. D., & Murayama, K. (2015). Mastery-approach goals eliminate retrieval-induced forgetting: The role of achievement goals in memory inhibition. Personality and Social Psychlogy Bulletin, 41, 687-695.   

Kovas, Y., Garon-Carrier, G., Boivin, M., Petrill, S. A., Plomin, R., Malykh, S. B., Spinath, F., Murayama, K., Ando, J., Bogdanova, O. Y., Brendgen, M., Dionne, G., Forget-Dubois, N., Gottschling, J., Guay, F., Lemelin, J-P., Logan, J. A., Yamagata, S., Shikishima, C., Spinath, B., Thompson, L. A., Tikhomirova, T. N., Tosto, M. G., Tremblay, R. E., & Vitaro, F. (2015). Why do children differ in motivation to learn: Insights from over 13,000 twins from 6 countries. Personality and Individual Differences, 80, 51-63.   

Friedman, M., McGillivray, S., Murayama, K. & Castel, A. D. (2015). Memory for medication side effects in younger and older adults: The role of subjective and objective importance. Memory & Cognition, 43(2), 206-215.   


Eich, T. S. , Murayama, K., Castel, A. D., & Knowlton, B. J. (2014). The dynamic effects of age-related stereotype threat on explicit and implicit memory performance in older adults. Social Cognition, 32(6), 559-570.   

Murayama, K., Miyatsu, T., Buchli, D., & Storm, B. C. (2014). Forgetting as a consequence of retrieval: A meta-analytic review of retrieval-induced forgetting. Psychological Bulletin, 140, 1383-1409.   

Braver, T. S., Krug, M. K., Chiew, K. S., Kool, W., Clement, N. J., Adcock, A., Barch, D. M., Botvinick, M. M., Carver, C. S., Cols, R., Custers, R., Dickinson, A. R., Dweck, C. S., Fishbach, A., Gollwitzer, P. M., Hess, T. M., Isaacowitz, D. M., Mather, M., Murayama, K., Pessoa, L., Samanez-Larkin, G. R., & Somerville, L. H. (2014). Mechanisms of motivation-cognition interaction: Challenges and opportunities. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 14, 443-472.   

Murayama, K., Sakaki, M., Yan, V. X., & Smith, G. M. (2014). Type-1 error inflation in the traditional by-participant analysis to metamemory accuracy: A generalized mixed-effects model perspective. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 40, 1287-1306.   

Aoki, R., Matsumoto, M., Yomogida, Y., Izuma, K., Murayama, K., Sugiura, A., Camerer, C. F., Adolphs, R., & Matsumoto, K. (2014). Social equality in the number of choice options is represented in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 34, 6413-6421.   

Tanaka, A. & Murayama, K. (2014). Within-person analyses of situational interest and boredom: Interactions between task-specific perceptions and achievement goals. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106, 1122-1134.   

Murayama, K., Pekrun, R., & Fiedler, K. (2014). Research practices that can prevent an inflation of false-positive rates. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 18, 107-118.   

Murayama, K. & Kitagami, S. (2014). Consolidation power of extrinsic rewards: Reward cues enhance long-term memory for irrelevant past events. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143, 15-20.   

Pekrun, R., Cusack, A., Murayama, K., Elliot, A, J., & Thomas, K. (2014). The power of anticipated feedback: Effects on students' achievement goals and achievement emotions. Learning and Instruction, 29, 115-124.   

Storm, B. C., Friedman, M. C., Murayama, K., & Bjork, R. A. (2014). On the transfer of prior tests or study events to subsequent study. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 40, 115-124.   


Murayama, K., Pekrun, R., Lichtenfeld, S., & vom Hofe, R. (2013). Predicting long-term growth in adolescents' mathematics achievement: The unique contributions of motivation and cognitive strategies. Child Development, 84, 1475-1490.   

Castel, A. D., Murayama, K., Friedman, M. C., McGillivray, S., & Link, I. (2013). Selecting valuable information to remember: Age-related differences and similarities in self-regulated learning. Psychology and Aging, 28, 232-242.   

Sakaki, M. & Murayama.K. (2013). Automatic ability attribution after failture: A dual process view of achievement attribution. PLoS ONE, 8(5), e63066. Download paper

Izuma, K. & Murayama, K. (2013). Choice-induced preference change in the free-choice paradigm: A critical methodological review. Frontiers in Psychology, 4(41) (the authors equally contributed to the paper)Download paper

Przybylski, A. K., Murayama, K., DeHaan, C. R., & Gladwell, V. (2013). Motivational, emotional, and behavioral correlates of fear of missing out. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 1841-1848.   

Murayama, K. & Elliot, A. J. (2013). The competition-performance relation from the perspective of the opposing processes model. In D. M. McInerney, H. W., Marsh, & R. Craven, R. (Eds.), Theory driving research: New wave perspectives on self-processes and human development (Advances in self research. Vol. 4) Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.

Yoshida, T. & Murayama, K. (2013). Why students often fail to use learning strategies that experts find effective? Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology, 61, 32-43. (In Japanese, Distinguished Paper Award, Japanese Association of Educational Psychology)


Murayama, K. & Elliot, A. J. (2012). Further clarifying the competition-performance relation: Reply to Johnson et al. Psychological Bulletin, 138, 1079-1084.   

Murayama, K. & Elliot, A. J. (2012). The competition-performance relation: A meta-analytic review and test of the opposing processes model of competition and performance. Psychological Bulletin, 138, 1035-1070. [see also Commentary on this paper: Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Roseth, C. J. (2012). Competition and performance: More facts, more understanding? Comment on Murayama and Elliot (2012). Psychological Bulletin, 138, 1071-1078.]   

Murayama, K., Elliot, A. J., & Friedman, R. (2012). Achievement goals and approach-avoidance motivation. In R. M. Ryan (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of human motivation (pp. 191-207). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Law, W., Elliot, A. J., & Murayama, K. (2012). Perceived competence moderates the relation between performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104, 806-819.   

Elliot, A. J., Sedikides, C., Murayama, K., Tanaka, A., Thrash, T. M., & Mapes, R. R. (2012). Cross-cultural generality and specificity in self-regulation: Avoidance personal goals and multiple aspects of wellbeing in the U.S. and Japan. Emotion, 12, 1031-1040.   

Lichtenfeld, S., Pekrun, R., Stupnisky, R. H., Reiss, K., & Murayama, K. (2012). Measuring students' emotions in the early years: The achievement emotions questionnaire-elementary school (AEQ-ES). Learning and Individual Differences, 22, 190-201. Download the scale reported in the paper   

Przybylski, A. K., Weinstein, N., Murayama, K., Lynch, M. F., & Ryan, R. M. (2012). The ideal self at play: The appeal of video games that let you be all you can be. Psychological Science, 23, 77-85.   

Murayama, K. (2012). The concept of validity: Historic and psychometric perspectives. The Annual Report of Educational Psychology in Japan, 51, 118-130. (In Japanese)


Murayama, K. & Elliot, A. J. (2011). Achievement motivation and memory: Achievement goals differentially influence immediate and delayed remember-know recognition memory. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37, 1339-1348.   

Elliot, A. J., Murayama, K., & Pekrun, R. (2011). A 3 x 2 achievement goal model. Journal of Educational Psychology. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103, 632-648. Download the scale reported in the paper   

Suzuki, M., Tanaka, E., Murayama, K., & Ichikawa, S. (2011). Classification of Efficient Calculation Problems and the Effect of Instruction Using an Abstract Strategy. Educational Technology Research, 34, 75-83. (English version available)   

Shikishima, C., Yamagata, S., Hiraishi, K., Sugimoto, Y., Murayama, K., & Ando, J. (2011). A simple syllogism-solving test: Empirical findings and implications for g research. Intelligence, 39, 89-99.   

Elliot, A. J., Thrash, A. M., & Murayama, K. (2011). Longitudinal analysis of self-regulation and well-being: Avoidance personal goals, avoidance coping, stress generation, and subjective well-being. Journal of Personality, 79, 643-674.   

Murayama, K. & Kuhbandner, C. (2011). Money enhances memory consolidation - But only for boring material. Cognition, 119, 120-124.   

Murayama, K., Elliot, A. J., & Yamagata, S. (2011). Separation of performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals: A broader analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103, 238-256.


Murayama, K., Matsumoto, M., Izuma, K., & Matsumoto, K. (2010). Neural basis of the undermining effect of extrinsic reward on intrinsic motivation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107, 20911-20916. (featured in BBC news, Yahoo News Top, etc.)
[see also Commentary on this paper: Camerer, C. F. (2010). Removing financial incentives demotivates the brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107, 20849-20850.]   

Izuma, K., Matsumoto, M., Murayama, K., Samejima, K., Sadato, N. & Matsumoto, K. (2010). Neural correlates of cognitive dissonance and choice-induced preference change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107, 22014-22019. (featured in Yahoo News Top, etc.)   

Elliot, A. J., Conroy, D., Barron, K. E., & Murayama, K. (2010). Achievement motives and goals: A developmental analysis. In M. Lamb, A. M. Freund, & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), The handbook of life-span development: Vol. 2. Social and emotional development (pp. 474-510). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.


Murayama, K. & Elliot, A. J. (2009). The joint influence of personal achievement goals and classroom goal structures on achievement-relevant outcomes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101, 432-447.   

Murayama, K., Zhou, M., & Nesbit, J. C. (2009). A cross-cultural examination of the psychometric properties of the achievement goal questionnaire. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 69, 266-286.   

Friedman, R., Moller, A. C., Fryer, J. W., Zahn, I., Law, W., Acuff, R. D., Niesta, D., Murayama, K., Meier, A. M., Jelstad, B., & Elliot, A. J. (2009). Achievement goals in the context of the hierarchical model of approach-avoidance achievement motivation. In A. Kaplan, S. A. Karabenick & E. DeGroot (Eds.), Culture, self, and motivation: Essays in honor of Martin L. Maehr (pp. 111-134). NY: Information Age Publishers.

Ichikawa, S., Haebara, T., Sugisawa, T., Seo, M., Kiyokawa, S., Inuzuka, M., Murayama, K., Uesaka, Y., Kobayashi, H., & Shinogaya, K. (2009). Development of COMPASS: Componential assessment for basic competence and study skills in mathematics. Cognitive Studies, 16, 333-347. (In Japanese)


Elliot, A. J. & Murayama, K. (2008). On the measurement of achievement goals: Critique, illustration, and application. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 613-628. Download the scale reported in the paper   

Murayama, K. (2008). Objective test items. In E. Anderman (Ed.), Psychology of classroom learning: An encyclopedia Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA


Murayama, K. (2006). Advances in the dual process models of recognition memory: Methodological problems and a proposal of "multilevel framework". Japanese Psychological Review, 49, 569-591.

Takahashi, A., & Murayama, K. (2006). Quantitative and qualitative analyses of achievement in integrated study: Specific nature of task demands in integrated learning. Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology, 54, 371-383. (In Japanese)

Murayama, K. (2006). "Adaptation to the test" : A review of problems and perspectives. Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology, 54, 265-279. (In Japanese)

Murayama, K. (2006). Test format scheme and the relation between objective tests and learning strategies. Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology, 54, 63-74. (In Japanese)


Murayama, K., & Oikawa, M. (2005). Are avoidance strategies always maladaptive? Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology, 53, 273-286. (In Japanese, Distinguished Paper Award, Japanese Association of Educational Psychology)

Murayama, K. (2005). Exploring the mechanism of test-expectancy effects on strategy change. Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology, 53, 172-184.


Murayama, K. (2004). Does the avoidance of help seeking have deleterious effects on achievement? Developmental Studies in Social Motivation, 3, 3-11. (In Japanese)

Hashimoto, W. Inuzuka, M., & Murayama, K. (2004). Effects of an abstract theme and daily-life context of information on children's understanding of social scientific concepts. Japanese Journal of Curriculum Development and Practice, 27, 21-30. (In Japanese)

Murayama, K. (2004). The three dimensional framework of positive and negative goal representation. Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology, 52, 199-213. (In Japanese)

Murayama, K. (2004). Effects of test format on learning strategy and perceived utility. Japanese Journal of Psychology, 75, 262-268. (In Japanese)


Murayama, K. (2003). History and recent advances in achievement goal theory: A critical review of Ames and Archer's (1987, 1988) framework. Japanese Psychological Review, 46, 564-583. (In Japanese)

Murayama, K. (2003). Test of undifferentiated performance-goal hypothesis. Developmental Studies in Social Motivation, 2, 3-11. (In Japanese)

Murayama, K. (2003). Learning strategy use and short- and long-term perceived utility. Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology, 51, 130-140. (In Japanese)

Murayama, K. (2003). Test format and learning strategy use. Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology, 51, 1-12.. (In Japanese, Kido, Best Paper Award, Japanese Association of Educational Psychology)